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The second largest, and perhaps oldest, city in Tamil Nadu, Madurai is a variant of 'Mathura'. Located on the Vaigai River and enclosed by the Anai, Naga, and Pasu (Elephant, Snake, and Cow) hills, the old city, site of the Pandya (4th-11th century) capital, centers on Meenakshi-Sundareshwara (or Parvati-Shiva) temple, also called Sri Meenakshi temple. After the Pandyas, it passed to Chola, Vijayanagar, Muslim, Maratha, and British rulers. The temple, Tirumala Nayak palace, Teppakulam tank (an earthen embankment reservoir), and a 1,000-pillared hall were rebuilt in the Vijayanagar period (16th-17th century) after the city's total destruction in 1310 by Malik Kafur, a lieutenant of Ala'-ud-din Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate. In the 1940s, Madurai became a centre of the civil disobedience movement and remained an important seat of political leadership. Setup in 1955, the Gandhi Memorial museum documents the Indian struggle against the British from 1757 to 1947. [Adapted from Encyclopedia Britannica]
Sri Meenakshi Temple
Sri Meenakshi Temple Museum
Thirumalai Nayak's Palace ▒
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